Wissenschaftliche Übersicht und Hintergrundbericht aus 2021 über die neusten Techniken und Trends in der Wirbelsäulenendoskopie.
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The utilization of indirect visualization during procedures has been increasingly replacing traditional forms of direct visualization across many different surgical specialties. The adoption of arthroscopy, using small cameras placed inside joints, has transformed musculoskeletal care over the last several decades, allowing surgeons to provide the same anatomic solutions with less tissue dissection, resulting in lower requirements for inpatient care, reduced costs, and expedited recovery. For a variety of reasons, spine surgery has lagged behind other specialties in the adoption of indirect visualization. Nonetheless, patient demand for less invasive spine procedures and surgeon drive to provide these solutions and improve care quality has driven global adoption of spinal endoscopy. There are numerous endoscopic platforms and techniques currently utilized, and these systems are rapidly evolving. Additionally, the variance in technology and health system incentives across the globe has generated tremendous regional heterogeneity in the utilization of spinal endoscopic procedures. We present a consolidated review, including the background, evidence, techniques, and trends in spinal endoscopy, so that clinicians can gain a deeper understanding of this rapidly evolving domain of spinal healthcare.